Emigration in The Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi in Ming and Qing Dynasties affected the historical development of local society

2022-07-09 0 By

In Ming and Qing dynasties, the border areas of Guizhou and Guangxi were all populated by immigrants.Through the military, trade, reclamation and other factors contributed to the emergence of immigrants.The entry of immigrants injected fresh breath into the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi, and had an important impact on the social development of the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi.The territory map of Ming and Qing dynasties originated from the Ming Dynasty, when the central government carried out the wei post system in the local society on a large scale.The border region of Guizhou and Guangxi was also established in this period. The main way of han nationality emigration was through military emigration process based on the military garrison and for guarding the border.Many officers and soldiers came to the garrison with their families. In the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi, there were guizhou Garrison, Guizhou Vanguard, Pu ‘an Garrison, Anzhuang Garrison, Anlong Qianhusuo Garrison, Duyun Garrison, Xintian Garrison, Guzhou Garrison, Wukai Garrison, Qingyuan Garrison, Nandan Garrison, Liuzhou Garrison and so on.These were wei posts distributed in the Border areas of Guizhou and Guangxi. The Ming Dynasty sent troops to be stationed, and their families had a strict household registration system. Many officers and soldiers came to wei posts with their families.Mr. Fan Yuchun from The Border region of Guizhou and Guangxi said in his research on Military Emigration in Guangxi in the Ming Dynasty that “the Ming Guards’ troops mainly traveled from three ways: conscription, return and exile.”Through these three ways, the Han nationality in Guizhou and Guangxi border region mainly entered into the border region society in these three ways.Coupled with the existence of border defense policies at that time, some border garrison soldiers also accompanied the army to these regions, which became a source of military immigration at that time.In addition, at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, some officers and soldiers from the Central Plains were scattered in the Border areas of Guizhou and Guangxi as they vigorously pursued the forces at the end of the Yuan dynasty in southwest China.These military immigrants all lived in the minority areas, which was the military guarantee of the Ming dynasty in the local society, and also became the historical mark of han immigrants in the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi.Soldiers in the Ming and Qing Dynasties 2. The state gradually abolished the wei Post system and set up various key posts, such as the establishment of the ancient zhou Hall in Guizhou Province at that time. Compared with the Qing Dynasty, the Han immigrants in the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi in the Ming Dynasty were more obviously military in nature, because they paid special attention to the military power in the local society from the early Ming Dynasty.Guizhou and Guangxi provinces are located in the geographical category of the southwest frontier, and the state attaches importance to the extensive distribution of military forces.In addition, most of the Border regions of Guizhou and Guangxi belong to the jurisdiction of chieftain, so the wide distribution of the army can form a strong deterrent force, and also become an important guarantee for the state to enter the border region society, which also played a certain role in promoting the development of the border region society.In the Qing Dynasty, the state gradually abolished the Ming Dynasty’s wei post system, and set up towns, camps, associations and xins in key places of local society, where officers and soldiers were stationed. Military emigration also accounted for an important proportion in this period.For example, the ancient prefecture of Guizhou province was established by the Qing Dynasty and stationed by the army.Ming Dynasty wei qing Lin Pu in the “ancient state miscellanies” said: “the ancient state is a hundred barbarian, since ancient times the sound of teaching.In the seventh year of Yongzheng, Zhang managed Guangsi and guarded Liping, unified soldiers and suppressed fu, and set its land slightly, thus entering the territory.Li Miao tongzhi one member, one general, divided into three battalions of left, middle and right, stationed 2,400 troops, and two general guards of left and right, set up a garrison of 2,800 households to control the land.”The ancient state from its outside the birth of seedlings, into the state’s formal system under the administrative district, stationed in the army have 2,400, but also arranged to camp more than 2,800 households.After these military families arrived in the local society, they gradually became the military immigrant groups in the local society.With the deepening of the state’s power, special attention has been paid to the arrangement of military forces in ethnic minority areas.In addition to military immigration, there are also a large number of exiled officials, refugees and businessmen who come to the society of The Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi. In addition, the spontaneous influx of refugees is another form of immigration in the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi.The soldiers of Ming Dynasty emigrated from the han nationality in the middle and late Qing Dynasty, which greatly promoted the development of mountainous areas in Qingyuan Prefecture of Guangxi Province.The ways of immigration are diversified. These immigrants in different forms came to the society of Guizhou and Guangxi border region and settled down for a long time, becoming an important immigrant group in the society of Guizhou and Guangxi border region and playing an important role in the historical process of social development.In the Qing Dynasty, with the construction of a large number of post stations and dredging of river channels, it provided convenient transportation routes for the border areas of Guizhou and Guangxi, and provided convenient conditions for a large number of merchants to enter these areas for business and trade.Some merchants settled long term for business.From the busy water transport from The Rongjiang river to the Congjiang river in the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi at that time, it can be seen that trade was very frequent.Immigrants who came to these areas for trade interspersed in various places in the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi and interacted with local society more and more frequently. Some merchants gradually became indigenous and settled down.During the Ming and Qing dynasties, with the smooth traffic lines, the population flow between regions became more frequent, and the phenomenon of immigration was widespread.Immigration appears in every period, but the way of immigration is gradually diversified.Because of the existence of the emigration factor, it has a profound influence on the social development of guizhou and Guangxi border region, and has been running through the historical process of its social development.4. The entry of Han Immigrants affected the development process of The Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi developed to a certain extent.With the deepening of national policies, the continuous entry of Han immigrants has affected the historical development of local society.First, the entry of han immigrants has enriched the population composition of Guizhou and Guangxi border region.Guizhou and Guangxi border region in a long period of time, is the situation of ethnic minorities dominate the world, the country to promote the chieftain system to a certain extent, and strengthen the inherent ethnic distribution characteristics in Guizhou and Guangxi border region.With the continuous enhancement of the state power, the qing dynasty immigration gradually promoted the state’s administrative system in these areas, and military immigration also became a major way of immigration.In addition, commercial immigration was also very active, and some independent immigration also became the way of immigration at that time.With the increasing of han immigrants, the population composition of Guizhou and Guangxi border region has been changed gradually, thus forming the situation of han and other nationalities living together.Secondly, the entry of han immigrants promoted the cultural exchanges in guizhou and Guangxi border areas.The immigrant group itself is the carrier of culture, with the immigrants to the place, they spread the advanced Han culture, so that the minority nationalities in The Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi are influenced by the Han culture, promoting the interaction and exchange between the Han culture and minority culture.At the same time, under the influence of Han culture, it also promoted the development of minority culture in Guizhou and Guangxi border region.Thirdly, han nationality immigration has promoted the development of Guizhou and Guangxi border region to some extent and accelerated the promotion of national policies and institutions in these regions.The entry of han immigrants has promoted the development of economy and culture in guizhou and Guangxi border region, and thus the development of regional society.The emigration in Qing Dynasty not only enriched the material culture but also the spiritual culture in the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi, which was conducive to the social promotion of national policies in the border area of Guizhou and Guangxi.For example, there were a large number of migrant officials in the border areas of Guizhou and Guangxi, and the state strengthened its control over local chieftains in the Ming and Qing dynasties, which provided favorable conditions for the implementation of national policies.To sum up, han immigrants have an important impact on the social development of Guizhou and Guangxi border region.Both in economic and cultural aspects have been developed to a certain extent, so that the Border area of Guizhou and Guangxi gradually from a backwater area to an open direction of development.On the other hand, the entry of han immigrants accelerated the ethnic integration of Guizhou and Guangxi border region, and laid a certain foundation for the gradual nationalization.With the enhancement of national strength, it has become a trend for the state to intervene in the local society, especially in the middle and late Qing Dynasty, the local society carried out large-scale reformation and migration, and the wide distribution of han immigrants accelerated this historical process.In addition, with the entry of han immigrants, the ethnic composition of The Border region of Guizhou and Guangxi has been changed, and all aspects of communication between ethnic groups have been accelerated, thus promoting the rapid development of regional society, which has an important historical significance in the historical process of the development of the border region of Guizhou and Guangxi.Reference Source: Draft of Qing Dynasty history