When was the first large-scale peasant uprising in the Kingdom of Hungary?

2022-07-20 0 By

Antal Nagy de Buda was a minor nobleman from The County of Koloz in Transylvania who led the first mass peasant uprising in Medieval Hungary in 1437.The Baborna Peasant Uprising or Bobarna Uprising was a popular uprising in the eastern part of the Kingdom of Hungary.The uprising broke out after Transylvanian Bishop George Lepes failed to collect a tenth for years because of a temporary devaluation of the coins, but then demanded that the arrears be credited when he reissued coins of higher value.Most of the plebiscites were unable to pay the money demanded, but the bishop did not give up his claim and applied injunctions and other ecclesiastical penalties to force payment.Transylvanian peasants were already angry at the addition of existing seigniorial duties and taxes and the introduction of new taxes in the early decades of this century.Beginning in 1420, the Ottomans attacked Transylvania almost every year.Farmers had to pay higher and higher costs to defend themselves against the Ottomans.The king also ordered that every ten peasants should take up arms in case of an Ottoman attack, although the peasants were always exempt from military obligations.Rising taxes and new burdens aroused the populace.In 1434, the citizens of Kronstadt had to seek the help of Count Serlis against the rise of the Flach in Fogaras county.According to the historian Jean Sedlar, in medieval Transylvania, Flach peasants “occupied the lowest rung of the social ladder, superior only to slaves.”In 1437, the rebels gathered on the flat top of Mount Babolna near Alpare, where they established a firm camp (following the tabborite military strategy).Historian Lajos De Meni estimates that 5-6,000 armed men are concentrated on the plateau.The bishop and his brother Roland Lepes, deputy to the transylvanian governor (or royal governor), gathered their army to fight the rebels.The governor, the two earls of Seccles, and many transylvanian nobles rushed to the mountains to assist them against the rebels.The governor invaded the rebel camp, but the peasants resisted and successfully fought back, killing many of the nobles in the battle.To prevent the rebels from continuing the war, the bishops and leading nobles began negotiations with rebel envoys.Their compromise is recorded in the monastery of Kolozsmonostor.The agreement halved the tenth, abolished the ninth (a seigneur’s tax), guaranteed the peasants the right to move freely, and authorized them to hold an annual convention to ensure implementation of the agreement.The barons, the earls of Szekelys, and representatives of the Saxon seat formed a “brotherly alliance” with their enemies at Kaporna.The rebellious peasants left their camps and moved towards Dej.Soon thereafter, peasants invaded the Monastery of Kolozmonostol and captured Kolozvar and Naginyede.In January 1438, the Combined forces of Transylvania, the Earl of Thacker and the Saxon seat forced the rebels to surrender.The leaders of the uprising were executed, and other rioters were dismembered at the Tripartite Congress.Transylvania